How did the Enigma Machine work?

From Jared Owen.

Let’s use 3D animation to go inside the Enigma Machine!
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Thanks to the Dan Perera for his help creating this animation.
His website:

This video has been dubbed using an artificial voice via to increase accessibility. You can change the audio track language in the Settings menu.

00:00 – Intro
01:01 – Encryption
02:42 – Enigma Machine
04:23 – Simple Circuit Example
05:23 – Inside the Machine
06:15 – Rotors
08:51 – Plugboard
10:08 – Keyboard Mechanism
12:14 – The Circuit
13:15 – Circuit Recap
14:38 – Rotor Mechanism
17:06 – Machine Settings
18:14 – Brilliant

Further reading on a some things that I couldn’t include in the video:
-Changes/improvements to the Enigma Machine: (
-The number of possible enigma settings is 10^23 (
-How the machine was broken by the allies: (
-The bombe machine (
-Alan Turing (
-Breaking of Enigma was classified until the 1970s (

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🌐Sources: – The Enigma Machine Explained (World Science Festival) – How the Enigma machine works – Imitation Game: how did the Enigma machine work? – The Inner Workings of an Enigma Machine – Enigma Machine (Numberphile) – Flaw in the Enigma Code (Numberphile) – Enigma Cipher Machine History | Ralph Simpson | Talks at Google

🟠This animation was made with Blender 2.93 – then I rendered it with Blender 3.0(Cycles Render)

🎵Music (
"Swan" by Enoch Yang
"A New Horizon" by Cloud Wave
"Dawning Sprite" by Lincoln Davis

I purchased a 3D model of the Enigma Machine for this video (I then had to create most of the inside):

🎧Here is some of the gear that I use for animation:
Graphics Card: GTX 1080ti
CPU: i7-8700k
Motherboard: Asus Prim Z370-A​​
Microphone: Samson Go Mic
Mouse: Logitech G600
Chair: Staples Gaming Chair

📼Video Summary:
The Enigma Machine was used during WWII by the German Army to get keep messages encrypted. It looks almost like a typewriter. There are 26 keys and 26 letters that can light up. These lights tell you how the keys will be scrambled up. The machine works like an electrical circuit. The rotors towards the back of the machine do most of the scrambling by mixing up the wiring. The plugboard in the front also another layer of encryption. Keyboard mechanism connects or disconnects the circuit to turn on a lightbulb. The path of the wire is difficult to follow so I recommend following it through in 3D! Each time a key is released – the rotors in the back will turn. This is done by the mechanism which includes the actuator bar, ratchet, pawl, and the index wheels.

#b3d #enigma #howitworks