Who were the Nephilim?

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The Nephilim are a mysterious group of beings mentioned in the book of Genesis. But who were they thought to be? Giants? Fallen angels?

Bibliography:
-Loren T. Stuckenbruck, The Myth of Rebellious Angels: Studies in Second Temple Judaism and New Testament Texts (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2017).
-Adrienne Mayor, The First Fossil Hunters: Dinosaurs, Mammoths, and Myth in Greek and Roman Times (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2023).
-Wojciech Kosior, “The Fallen (Or) Giants? The Gigantic Qualities of the Nefilim in the Hebrew Bible,” in Magdalena Waligórska and Tara Kohn, eds., Jewish Translation, Translating Jewishness (Boston: De Gruyter, 2018).
-Ronald Hendel, The Landscape of Memory: Giants and the Conquest of Canaan,” "From the book Collective Memory and Collective Identity."
-Ronald Hendel, "The Nephilim were on the Earth," in The Fall of the Angels, pages 11-34.
-Robin Routledge, "The Nephilim: A Tall Story?" Tyndale Bulletin 66.1 (2015), 19-40.
-Annette Yoshiko Reed, "Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature," 2005.

00:00 Introduction
1:31 Ancient Context of Genesis 6
4:00 Ancient Canaanite Giants?
7:18 The Hellenistic Interpretation of Nephilim
9:00 Fallen Angel Interpretation
10:30 Rabbinic Jewish and later Christian Interpretations

Select images courtesy of Getty